Oudezijds Kolk, Amsterdam, Holland ca. 1890-1900
Detroit Publishing Co.
The 'Oudezijds Kolk' is a narrow canal in the center of Amsterdam. It runs through the 'Zeedijk' to the Open Havenfront from the extension of the 'Oudezijdsachterburgwal'. Like the Geldersekade it is bordered to the north by the Prins Hendrikkade. Through the Kolksluis (302 Bridge), built in the early 15th century, it served as a drainage canal to when the IJ, now the Open Harbour Front. Only one quay is passable, but only for pedestrians.
Native children, Marken Island, Holland (c. 1890-1900)
Detroit Publishing Co.
Marken is a village with a population of 1,810 in the municipality of Waterland in the province of North Holland in the Netherlands. Marken forms a peninsula in the Markermeer and was formerly an island in the Zuiderzee. The characteristic wooden houses of Marken are a tourist attraction.
For some time during the later 19th and early 20th centuries, Marken and its inhabitants were the focus of considerable attention by folklorists, ethnographers and physical anthropologists, who regarded the small fishing town as a relic of the traditional native culture that was destined to disappear as the modernization of the Netherlands gained pace. Among them was Johann Friedrich Blumenbach who examined a skull from the island of humans which he called Batavus genuinus; and was the Belgian painter Xavier Mellery who stayed in Marken at the request of Charles De Coster. Mellery was asked to perform illustrative work and delivered several intimist works.
The project of Cornelis Lely was to incorporated the island into the Markerwaard. The dike, built in 1941 in the north, is the first phase of that project which was stopped by the war.
In 1983, the Marker Museum about the history of the island was opened.
Marken was a separate municipality until 1991, when it was merged into Waterland.
The Women of Amphissa (1887)
Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema (January 8, 1836, Dronrijp, the Netherlands - June 25, 1912, Wiesbaden, Germany) was one of the most renowned painters of late nineteenth-century Britain. Born in Dronrijp, the Netherlands, and trained at the Royal Academy of Antwerp, Belgium, he settled in England in 1870 and spent the rest of his life there.
A classical-subject painter, he became famous for his depictions of the luxury and decadence of the Roman Empire, with languorous figures set in fabulous marbled interiors or against a backdrop of dazzling blue Mediterranean sea and sky. Universally admired during his lifetime for his superb draftsmanship and depictions of Classical antiquity, he fell into disrepute after his death and only in the last thirty years has his work been reevaluated for its importance within nineteenth-century English art.
The Women of Amphissa is one of Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema's final paintings in which he portrays a dated historical event. Known for his preoccupation with quotidian views of Rome, Alma-Tadema renders these scenes with photo-realistic precision and care for the aesthetic. The Women of Amphissa is no exception. Through his archaizing views, Alma-Tadema provides Victorian society a glimpse into the classical world, allowing them to identify with its inhabitants and imagine its wonder. Amphissa was the capitol of an annual festival in honor of the god Bacchus. In 350 B.C., the territory was over-run by an army from Phocis, stirring fear that the bacchantes would become vulnerable after their celebrating to attack by the enemy soldiers. The women of Amphissa consequently stepped in to protect the sleeping bacchantes throughout the night, guarding them from being ravished by the opponent. Alma-Tadema portrays dawn at the Amphissian marketplace the morning after, its women serving food, standing watch, and caring for the exhausted Bacchantes.
View of Oudewater (1867)
Willem Koekkoek (Amsterdam, 1839 - Nieuwer-Amstel (Amstelveen), 1895) was a Dutch artist. He was the son of the painter Hermanus Koekkoek senior.
Koekkoek comes from a large family of painters and specialized in painting Dutch cityscapes. His main example was Cornelis Springer. The paintings of Koekkoek are a combination of historical reconstruction and fantasy. His body of work was therefore mostly popular abroad as the paintings depict an idealized image of Holland.
Oudewater is situated where the Linschoten river flows out in the Hollandsche IJssel. The origin of the town of Oudewater is obscure and no information has been found concerning the first settlement of citizens. It is also difficult to recover the name of Oudewater. One explanation is that the name is a corruption of old water-meadow. Oudewater was an important border city between Holland and Utrecht. Oudewater (lit. "Old water") was of great strategic importance. The town was granted city rights in 1265 by Hendrik van Vianden, the bishop of Utrecht. Oudewater took place in the First Free Statescouncil in Dordrecht on July 19, 1572, Oudewater was one of the twelve cities taking part in the first free convention of the States-General in Dordrecht. This was a meeting that laid down the origin of the State of the Netherlands, as we know it now, under the leadership of the House of Orange. This happened at the beginning of the 80 year war (1568Ð1648) when the Netherlands were still part of the Spanish Empire. After a siege of several months, Oudewater was conquered by the Spanish on August 7, 1575, and most of its inhabitants were killed.
In the 16th and 17th century, Oudewater was an important producer of rope. In the surrounding area, hemp was cultivated. There still is a rope manufacturing plant and a rope museum in the town. Oudewater is the setting for the 1975 novel, Das Geheimnis des Baron Oudewater, set in the 16th century, when The Netherlands was fighting for its independence from Spain. Written by the German author Alberta Rommel, it has been described as a "romantic historical novel".
From: http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willem_Koekkoek and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oudewater